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Effects of voltage and wire feed speed on weld fume characteristics.

Authors
Hovde-CA; Raynor-PC
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg 2007 Oct; 4(12):903-912
NIOSHTIC No.
20037436
Abstract
Welding generates high concentrations of ultrafine particles, which research suggests may be more toxic than larger particles. Fume characteristics were measured in a controlled apparatus as a function of voltage level and wire feed speed. Particles were sampled close to the welding process on mixed cellulose ester membrane filters and analyzed for iron, manganese, and total particulate matter at an accredited industrial hygiene laboratory. An ultrafine condensation particle counter measured the particle number concentration, and an optical particle counter measured the particle size distribution. Submicrometer particle number concentrations and iron, manganese, and total particle mass concentrations all depended on voltage levels but not on wire feed speed at a constant voltage. Ultrafine particle concentrations were more than three times greater at 23.5 V than at 16 V. Particles 0.5-0.7 m in diameter counted by the optical particle counter increased from 9800 particles/cm3 at 16 V to 82,800 particles/cm3 at 23.5 V. Manganese concentration was 1.7 mg/m3 at 16 V vs. 6.4 mg/m3 at 23.5 V. The data suggest that welders should use lower voltage levels whenever possible.
Keywords
Aerosol-particles; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Filter-membranes; Filters; Fumes; Inhalants; Inhalation-studies; Mathematical-models; Microscopy; Particle-aerodynamics; Particle-counters; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Particulates; Particulate-sampling-methods; Physiological-effects; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Statistical-analysis; Voltage-regulation; Volumetric-analysis; Welding-industry; Nanotechnology; Author Keywords: iron; manganese; particles; voltage; welding; wire feed speed
Contact
Peter C. Raynor, University of Minnesota, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Mayo MC 807, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
CODEN
JOEHA2
CAS No.
7439-89-6; 7439-96-5
Publication Date
20071022
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
praynor@umn.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2008
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008434
Issue of Publication
12
ISSN
1545-9624
Source Name
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
State
MN
Performing Organization
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
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