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Children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: using diverse exposure metrics to document ethnic/racial differences.

Authors
Sexton-K; Adgate-JL; Church-TR; Hecht-SS; Ramachandran-G; Greaves-IA; Fredrickson-AL; Ryan-AD; Carmella-SG; Geisser-MS
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2004 Mar; 112(3):392-397
NIOSHTIC No.
20037402
Abstract
Four metrics were used to assess exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for a probability sample (n = 152) of elementary school-age children in two economically disadvantaged neighborhoods: a) caregiver responses to a baseline questionnaire (BQ) about smoking status and behavior; b) 48-hr time-activity (T-A) data on location and time spent by children in the presence of tobacco smoke; c) total urinary cotinine as a marker for nicotine uptake; and d) urinary NNAL [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol] + NNAL-Gluc [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1- (3-pyridyl)-1-(O-beta-D-glucopyranuronosyl)butane] as a marker for uptake of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Consistent differences in ETS exposure by ethnicity and race were observed. Although data were insufficient to determine differences for NNAL + NNAL-Gluc, BQ responses, T-A data, and cotinine levels all indicated that average ETS exposure was highest for African-American children, moderately high for those designated "other" (white, Southeast Asian, Native American), moderately low for Hispanic children, and lowest for Somali immigrant children. For example, in February 2000, mean cotinine levels were 14.1 ng/mL for African Americans, 12.2 ng/mL for other, 4.8 ng/mL for Hispanics, and 4.4 ng/mL for Somalis. The BQ and T-A data together were reasonably good predictors of total cotinine levels (adjusted r2 = 0.69), and based on limited data, measured total cotinine values were a relatively good predictor of NNAL + NNAL-Gluc (adjusted r2 = 0.73). The results suggest that when children are exposed to ETS primarily in their homes, questionnaires and T-A logs might be effective screening tools for identifying those likely to experience higher uptake of nicotine.
Keywords
Age-groups; Air-contamination; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Carcinogenicity; Cell-biology; Cellular-reactions; Children; Demographic-characteristics; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-factors; Environmental-hazards; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Genetic-factors; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Lung-disease; Lung-irritants; Mathematical-models; Medical-surveys; Particle-aerodynamics; Physiological-effects; Physiological-response; Pollutants; Pollution; Quantitative-analysis; Questionnaires; Racial-factors; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Smoking; Statistical-analysis; Tobacco; Tobacco-smoke; Toxic-vapors; Author Keywords: children's health; cotinine; environmental tobacco smoke; ethnicity; questionnaires; race
Contact
K. Sexton, Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Texas, Brownsville Regional Campus, 80 Fort Brown, RAHC Bldg., Brownsville, TX 78520
CODEN
EVHPAZ
Publication Date
20040301
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
jadgate@umn.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2004
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008434
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0091-6765
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
MN; TX
Performing Organization
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
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