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Comparison of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to hazardous air pollutants in three urban communities.

Authors
Sexton-K; Adgate-JL; Ramachandran-G; Pratt-GC; Mongin-SJ; Stock-TH; Morandi-MT
Source
Environ Sci Technol 2004 Feb; 38(2):423-430
NIOSHTIC No.
20037400
Abstract
Two-day average concentrations of 15 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured concurrently in (a) ambient air in three urban neighborhoods, (b) air inside residences of participants, and (c) personal air near the breathing zone of 71 healthy, nonsmoking adults. The outdoor (O), indoor (I), and personal (P) samples were collected in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area over three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) in 1999 using charcoal-based passive air samplers (3M model 3500 organic vapor monitors). A hierarchical, mixed-effects statistical model was used to estimate the mutually adjusted effects of monitor location, community, and season while accounting for within-subject and within-time-index (monitoring period) correlation. Outdoor VOC concentrations were relatively low compared to many other urban areas, and only minor seasonal differences were observed. A consistent pattern of P > I > O was observed across both communities and seasons for 13 of 15 individual VOCs (exceptions were carbon tetrachloride and chloroform). Results indicate that ambient VOC measurements at central monitoring sites can seriously under-estimate actual exposures for urban residents, even when the outdoor measurements are taken in their own neighborhoods.
Keywords
Air-contamination; Air-monitoring; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Breathing-atmospheres; Breathing-zone; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Demographic-characteristics; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; Indoor-air-pollution; Indoor-environmental-quality; Inhalation-studies; Mathematical-models; Organic-chemicals; Outdoors; Particle-aerodynamics; Physiological-effects; Pollutants; Public-health; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Seasonal-factors; Statistical-analysis; Volatiles
Contact
Ken Sexton, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
CODEN
ESTHAG
Publication Date
20040201
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
ksexton@utb.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2004
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008434
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
0013-936X
Source Name
Environmental Science and Technology
State
MN; TX
Performing Organization
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
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