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Introduction to mine ventilating principles and practices.

Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 589, 1960 Jan; :1-54
The importance of the ventilating system in coal mining is recognized universally, and standards for ventilating requirements have been established by State mine-inspection departments and the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act. Mine management, of course, is responsible for the effectiveness of the ventilating system and for compliance with State and Federal laws. Few companies employ ventilating engineers; the engineering department may plan the mine development and the ventilating system, but it falls upon the mine superintendents and the foremen to assure adequate ventilation for the working sections. The fundamentals of airflow are taught in mining schools, and every mine supervisor must prove a working knowledge of these fundamentals before he is certified by the State. Most mine foremen, therefore, along with their practical knowledge, have a working knowledge of certain basic ventilating formulas. However, many ventilation problems require solution by more complex formulas, changing certain ventilation problems to mathematical exercises. This bulletin is written to explain in layman language the basic laws and fundamentals of mine airflow and their application to the solution of common ventilating problems. It presupposes that the reader will possess at least an elementary knowledge of mine ventilation and of arithmetic and algebra. Our attempt is to reduce the complex and difficult ventilating formulas to simple, practical fundamentals. . We have taken certain liberties with well-known theories of airflow principles, believing that it is unrealistic to apply higher mathematics and refinements to ventilating problems, the data of which are based upon assumption or relative field measurements of air quantities and pressures. For example, in our velocity- pressure conversions to velocity, we will use 4,000 f.p.m., rather than the accurate 4,008 feet, as equivalent to 1 inch water pressure. In calculations we will use averages rather than integrate between limits. This bulletin was prepared for use by mine personnel interested in and responsible for mine-ventilation operations.
Mining-industry; Underground-mining; Ventilation; Ventilation-systems; Coal-mining; Air-flow
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Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 589