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Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and ergosterol content explain monocyte and epithelial cell inflammatory responses to agricultural dusts.

Authors
Poole-JA; Dooley-GP; Saito-R; Burrell-AM; Bailey-KL; Romberger-DJ; Mehaffy-J; Reynolds-SJ
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2010 Jan; 73(10):684-700
NIOSHTIC No.
20036719
Abstract
In agricultural and other environments, inhalation of airborne microorganisms is linked to respiratory disease development. Bacterial endotoxins, peptidoglycans, and fungi are potential causative agents, but relative microbial characterization and inflammatory comparisons amongst agricultural dusts are not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of microbial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, and ergosterol and evaluate inflammatory responses in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with various dust samples. Settled surface dust was obtained from five environments: swine facility, dairy barn, grain elevator, domestic home (no pets), and domestic home with dog. Endotoxin concentration was determined by recombinant factor C (rFC). 3-OHFA, muramic acid, and ergosterol were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dust-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells was evaluated. Endotoxin-independent dust-induced inflammatory responses were evaluated. Endotoxin and 3-OHFA levels were highest in agricultural dusts. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, and ergosterol were detected in dusts samples. Muramic acid was highest in animal farming dusts. Ergosterol was most significant in grain elevator dust. Agricultural dusts induced monocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and epithelial cell IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Monocyte and epithelial IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was not dependent on endotoxin. House dust(s) induced monocyte TNFalpha, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion. Swine facility dust generally produced elevated responses compared to other dusts. Agricultural dusts are complex with significant microbial component contribution. Large animal farming dust(s)-induced inflammation is not entirely dependent on endotoxin. Addition of muramic acid to endotoxin in large animal farming environment monitoring is warranted.
Keywords
Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-processes; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Animal-husbandry-workers; Bacterial-dusts; Biological-effects; Cytology; Cytotoxic-effects; Dust-exposure; Dust-particles; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Farmers; Health-hazards; Inhalation-studies; Microscopic-analysis; Particulate-dust; Particulates; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-infections; Respiratory-irritants; Work-environment; Worker-health; Work-operations; Workplace-studies
Contact
Jill A. Poole, MD, Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep & Allergy Section, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985300 The Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5300, USA
CODEN
JTEHD6
Publication Date
20100101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
japoole@unmc.edu
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement; Agriculture
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-008085
Issue of Publication
10
ISSN
1528-7394
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
State
NE; CO
Performing Organization
Colorado State University - Ft. Collins
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