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Progress in bioaerosol detection techniques: characterizing morphologically indiscernible bioaerosols.

Aerobiology 2007: Symposium of the Pan-American Association of Aerobiology, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 8 -11, 2007. Pan-American Association of Aerobiology, 2007 Jun; :24
The need to measure bioaerosols has increased dramatically in recent years due to the growing incidence of respiratory and infectious diseases. Many strategies have been developed to sample and identify personal exposures to bioaerosols; however, no strategy serves all purposes. Although current exposure assessment methodologies provide important health surveillance data, they are often time consuming and subjective. Techniques based on immunoassays and qPCR have recently been introduced to overcome some of these limitations; however the identification and quantification of submicron particles remains a challenge. New immunodiagnostic techniques such as the Halogen Immunoassay (HIA) are an important advance that enables the detection of particle-bound antigens using human serum IgE or specific antibodies. Indoor air studies using the HIA found that non-identifiable bioaerosols such as fungal fragments could be identified as aeroallergen sources and were often higher in concentration than spores of individual allergenic fungal genera. Recently, this technique was modified to enable the characterization of even smaller bioaerosols by simultaneous double immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies and human serum IgE using fluorescent probes and confocal microscopy. A new two-stage, cyclone-based personal bioaerosol sampler was recently developed at NIOSH. The two-stage bioaerosol sampler is a lightweight device designed primarily as a personal air- sampling device. The sampler contains two microcentrifuge tubes and a back-up filter to allow aerodynamic size fractionation of airborne particulates. Its design facilitates the deposition of bioaerosols in a format that enables direct processing for applications such as qPCR, ELISA or HIA. The two-stage bioaerosol sampler was used for the detection and size separation of co-aerosolized fungi and influenza viruses using qPCR methodologies. This technique potentially eliminates several limitations associated with other air sampling devices. The approach of engineering new sampling devices combined with newer molecular methodologies may help elucidate the contribution that submicron bioaerosol particles make to respiratory disease.
Monitors; Monitoring-systems; Biohazards; Analytical-instruments; Analytical-processes; Sampling-equipment; Samplers; Nanotechnology; Aerosols; Aerosol-particles; Allergens; Fungi; Microorganisms; Particulate-dust; Particulates
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Aerobiology 2007: Symposium of the Pan-American Association of Aerobiology, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 8 -11, 2007