Identification and quantification of the prohapten, dehydroabietic acid in nonlatex surgical and exam gloves.
Siegel-PD; Law-BF; Fowler-JF; Fowler-LM; Beezhold-D
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):398
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a well recognized health problem commonly associated with the use of latex and nitrile gloves. Vulcanization accelerators, including zinc dithiocarbamates and mercaptobenzothiazole, found in latex and nitrile gloves have been identified as major etiological agents of glove-associated ACD. Recently, accelerator-free neoprene-type (polychloroisoprene, polychloroprene) surgical and exam gloves have been introduced to prevent both Type I and Type IV allergic reactions. During assessment of gloves used by an ACD patient, disproportionated resin was identified in dichloromethane extracts. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA), dihydroabietic acid and other pimaric/isopimaric species were observed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS). DHA is a Type IV prohapten that can be air oxidized to the active allergenic form. Four different brands of neoprene-type gloves were purchased and DHA content quantified. A latex surgical glove was used as a negative control. All neoprene-type gloves contained DHA ranging from 7 to 31 mg/g glove. A preliminary leaching study of DHA from one glove brand suggests that small amounts of DHA can leach into artificial sweat (approx. 1 mu g/mL). Oxidized DHA was not observed in any of the gloves assayed. It is concluded that DHA exposure may occur from neoprene-type glove use, although; potential association with glove ACD has not been established.
Biohazards; Biological-effects; Contact-allergies; Contact-dermatitis; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Gloves; Personal-protection; Physiological-response; Quantitative-analysis; Statistical-analysis
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah