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Biomarker analysis of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure.

Authors
Gaines-LG; Fent-KW; Flack-SL; Thomasen-JM; Ball-LM; Whittaker-SG; Nylander French-LA
Source
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):397
NIOSHTIC No.
20036668
Abstract
Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is used as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed workers but the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We investigated the quantitative and time-dependent relationship between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels in 48 automotive spray-painters. During each sampling visit, breathing-zone air samples were collected during each clear-coat paint task, and immediately after dermal tape-strip samples were collected. One urine sample was collected before start of work and multiple samples were collected during the workday from each worker. HDA level, creatinine concentration, and specific gravity were determined in each urine sample. HDA concentrations varied throughout the day and ranged from 0 to 65.92 mu g/l with a geometric mean and standard deviation of 0.10 +/- 6.68 mu g/l. Dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels (p-values < or = 0.06). The results indicated biphasic elimination kinetics for HDA with a fast phase of 2.9 h. Creatinine concentration, (p<0.0001), weekday (p=0.056), and use of coveralls (p=0.12) were significant predictors of HDA levels. The use of coveralls (p=0.001), respirator type (p=0.005), smoker status (p=0.039), paint booth type (p=0.003), and worker's race (p=0.063) significantly affected HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. In summary, urine HDA is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and lungs and can be used as a biomarker to evaluate HDI exposure. The results also indicate the importance of both proper dermal and respiratory protection.
Keywords
Airborne-particles; Biological-effects; Breathing; Breathing-zone; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Dermatitis; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Inhalants; Inhalation-studies; Lung-disorders; Lung-irritants; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Personal-protection; Personal-protective-equipment; Protective-clothing; Protective-equipment; Protective-measures; Pulmonary-system; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Skin; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects; Urine-chemistry
CAS No.
822-06-0
Publication Date
20100301
Document Type
Abstract
Funding Type
Grant; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-007598; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-T42-CCT-422952; Grant-Number-T42-OH-008673
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1096-6080
Source Name
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah
State
WV; UT; NC
Performing Organization
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
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