Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Fisher BS, Lab SP, eds., Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 Feb; :1070-1071
Research on workplace bullying and psychological aggression has grown considerably during the past decade, and it now cuts across several academic disciplines. Joel Neuman and Robert Baron note that workplace aggression is a comprehensive term that refers to any acts that are intended to harm workers in settings or situations related to their work, which can be physical or nonphysical in nature. In the literature, workplace aggression is considered an umbrella term for a variety of more specific types of behavior, including bullying, mobbing, incivility, emotional abuse, petty tyranny, abusive supervision, and generalized or status-blind harassment. Psychological aggression at work typically refers only to those acts or behaviors that are nonphysical in form and are intended to cause psychological distress or harm to the target. Workplace bullying, on the other hand, incorporates both physical and psychological forms of aggression and has been defined more specifically with regard to persistence, frequency, and duration of negative work behaviors directed at one or more individuals in the workplace. A pattern of behaviors is considered bullying only if it is persistent, occurring repeatedly during a given period of time rather than as isolated incidents that happen only occasionally.