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Acute systemic inflammation to welding fume: comparison of various types.

Erdely-A; Zeidler-Erdely-PC; Liston-A; Salmen-Muniz-R; Hulderman-T; Antonini-JM; Simeonova-PP
Toxicologist 2010 Mar; 114(1):463
Adverse cardiovascular effects have been shown following particulate matter pulmonary exposure. In this study we evaluated acute systemic inflammation following aspiration exposure to three different types of welding fume (manual metal arcstainless steel [MMA-SS]; gas metal arc-SS [GMA-SS]; GMA-mild steel [GMA-MS]). Fumes generated from SS electrodes are approximately 40-50% iron, 20-30% chromium with ~3-5% nickel, whereas MS fumes are typically >80% iron, with some manganese, and no chromium or nickel. Mice were exposed to 340ug of welding fume suspended in PBS. Lavage parameters from the right lung lobes, with collection of heart, aorta, left lung lobe, serum and whole blood were analyzed for various inflammatory parameters including serum protein profiling (59 in total), inflammatory gene expression (TaqMan array) and lung cytotoxicity. At 4hr post exposure the MMA-SS fume was the most cytotoxic to the lung in terms of lavage albumin and LDH. Inflammatory gene expression was equally increased for all fumes with some exceptions including IL-5 and IL-13 which were greater for the MMA-SS fume and the CXCL chemokines which were greater for the GMA fumes. IL-5 was the only increased serum protein. In the aorta and heart stress response genes (e.g. MT-1, MT-2 and Hif-3A) were elevated in the MMA-SS fume only. The primary soluble component of MMA-SS is chromium and when mice were exposed to chromium alone similar gene changes were seen in the aorta but to a lesser extent. At 24hr post exposure we found continued pulmonary lung inflammation mostly greater compared to 4hr. At this time point inflammatory gene expression was greatest in the GMA-SS fume. At 24hr, lung cytotoxicity was still greatest in the MMA-SS and the expression of the stress genes in the aorta were equally elevated compared to 4hr. In conclusion we found the MMA-SS fume induced more pulmonary cytotoxicity as compared to the GMA fumes, and this was reflected in a cardiovascular response. The soluble chromium in the MMA-SS fume may play a role in these effects.
Biological-effects; Biological-monitoring; Cardiopulmonary-system; Cardiopulmonary-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Cell-biology; Cellular-reactions; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Fumes; Gas-mixtures; Genes; Inhalants; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Microscopic-analysis; Particulates; Physiological-effects; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Welding
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The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 49th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 7-11, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah