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From manganism to manganese-induced parkinsonism: a conceptual model based on the evolution of exposure.

Authors
Lucchini-RG; Martin-CJ; Doney-BC
Source
Neuromol Med 2009 Dec; 11(4):311-321
NIOSHTIC No.
20036264
Abstract
Manganism is a distinct medical condition from Parkinson's disease. Manganese exposure scenarios in the last century generally have changed from the acute, high-level exposure conditions responsible for the occurrence of manganism to chronic exposure to much lower levels. Such chronic exposures may progressively extend the site of manganese deposition and toxicity from the globus pallidus to the entire area of the basal ganglia, including the substantia nigra pars compacta involved in Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms of manganese neurotoxicity from chronic exposure to very low levels are not well understood, but promising information is based on the concept of susceptibility that may place individuals exposed to manganese at a higher risk for developing Parkinsonian disturbances. These conditions include mutations of genes which play important pathogenetic roles in both Parkinsonism and in the regulation of manganese transport and metabolism. Liver function is also important in manganese-related neurotoxicity and sub-clinical impairment may increase the risk of Parkinsonism. The purpose and scope of this report are to explore the literature concerning manganese exposure and potential subclinical effects and biological pathways, impairment, and development of diseases such as Parkinsonism and manganism. Inhalation and ingestion of manganese will be the focus of this report.
Keywords
Cancer; Chemical-composition; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Digestive-system; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Hepatic-microsomal-enzymes; Hepatocytes; Hepatotoxicity; Inhalation-studies; Neurophysiology; Neurotoxic-effects; Toxic-effects; Surveillance; Author Keywords: Manganism; Manganese poisoning; Parkinsonian disorders; Occupational exposure; Neurotoxicity
Contact
Brent C. Doney, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505
CODEN
NMEEAN
CAS No.
7439-95-4
Publication Date
20091201
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
bdoney@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
4
ISSN
1535-1084
NIOSH Division
DRDS
Priority Area
Healthcare and Social Assistance
Source Name
NeuroMolecular Medicine
State
WV
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