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Cadmium concentrations in blood and seminal plasma: correlations with sperm number and motility in three male populations (infertility patients, artificial insemination donors, and unselected volunteers).

Authors
Benoff-S; Hauser-R; Marmar-JL; Hurley-IR; Napolitano-B; Centola-GM
Source
Mol Med 2009 Jul-Aug; 15(7-8):248-262
NIOSHTIC No.
20035634
Abstract
To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = -0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 microg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 microg/L in AID and 0.092 microg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = -0.201, P < 0.036 and r = -0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility.
Keywords
Age-factors; Animal-studies; Blood-analysis; Blood-plasma; Cadmium-compounds; Chemical-analysis; Chemical-composition; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-indicators; Chemical-properties; Environmental-exposure; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Fertility; Humans; Laboratory-animals; Men; Questionnaires; Reproductive-effects; Spermatogenesis; Spermatozoa; Statistical-analysis
Contact
Susan Benoff, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030
CODEN
MOMEF3
CAS No.
7440-43-9
Publication Date
20090701
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
Sbenoff@optonline.net
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2009
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R21-OH-007330
Issue of Publication
7-8
ISSN
1076-1551
Source Name
Molecular Medicine
State
NY; MA; NJ
Performing Organization
North Shore University Hospital
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