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Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis.

Authors
Joseph-P
Source
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009 Aug; 238(3):272-279
NIOSHTIC No.
20035623
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.
Keywords
Carcinogenesis; Cell-damage; Cell-function; Cell-metabolism; Cell-transformation; Cellular-reactions; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-hazards; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Genes; Genetic-disorders; Humans; In-vitro-studies; In-vivo-study; Laboratory-animals; Lung-cancer; Lung-disease; Lung-irritants; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Oncogenesis; Oncogenic-agents; Oncogenicity; Oxidative-metabolism; Oxidative-processes; Toxic-effects; Author Keywords: Cadmium; Carcinogenesis; Gene expression; Oxidative stress; Apoptosis; DNA damage repair
Contact
Pius Joseph, Molecular Carcinogenesis Laboratory, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, MS 3014, Morgantown, WV 26505
CODEN
TXAPA9
CAS No.
7440-43-9
Publication Date
20090801
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
pjoseph1@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2009
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0041-008X
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
State
WV
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