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Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers.

Authors
Kisby-GE; Muniz-JF; Scherer-J; Lasarev-MR; Koshy-M; Kow-YW; McCauley-L
Source
J Agromed 2009 Apr; 14(2):206-214
NIOSHTIC No.
20035398
Abstract
Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A pilot study of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon (i.e., apples, pears) was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay) and serum analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde [MDA]). Cellular DNA damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators (p < .001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farm workers when compared with controls. A separate field study showed that DNA damage was also significantly greater (p < .001) in buccal cells (i.e., leukocytes) collected from migrant farm workers working with fungicides in the berry crops in Oregon. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., reactive oxygen species, reduced levels of glutathione) and oxidative DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and cancer.
Keywords
Absorption-rates; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Carcinogenicity; Cell-biology; Cell-damage; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Health-hazards; Nerve-damage; Neurological-reactions; Neurological-system; Neurotoxic-effects; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-health; Oxidation; Oxidative-processes; Pesticides; Author Keywords: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE); comet assay; fungicides; glutathione; malondialdehyde (MDA); organophosphate pesticides; oral leukocytes; reactive oxygen species (ROS); 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)
Contact
Glen E. Kisby, Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201
Publication Date
20090401
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
kisby@ohsu.edu
Funding Type
Grant; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2009
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007544; Grant-Number-R13-OH-009571
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
1059-924X
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
Journal of Agromedicine
State
WA; OR; GA; PA; WI
Performing Organization
University of Washington
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