Weight of evidence procedures for skin notation assignment in occupational hazard assessment.
Gadagbui-B; Dotson-G; Maier-A; Talaska-G
Toxicologist 2009 Mar; 108(1):422
Skin contact is a significant route of exposure in occupational settings. However, many occupational health risk assessments rely on qualitative "skin" notations to provide information on the potential for dermal exposures to contribute significantly to the systemic dose, and in particular, to inform the interpretation of quantitative risk assessments based on concurrent inhalation exposures. The underlying decision criterion for making such assignments is often not documented. Moreover, the traditional skin notation approach does not provide information on other effects of dermal exposure. We have reported previously on an enhanced notation strategy developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) that provides for the assignment of multiple skin notations that address systemic toxicity, direct skin effects, and dermal sensitization. The current work presents experience in applying the NIOSH strategy to over 70 chemicals. Weight of evidence decisions to address conflicting or limited data sets is highlighted. Examples of common situations include; 1) assigning a systemic effects notation where data or model predictions indicate absorption, but no or only limited dermal toxicity data are available, 2) differentiating among irritant severity levels when relying on qualitative studies that used different material dilutions and test systems, 3) developing notations for sensitization when limited human studies and standard animal assays provide conflicting results. The lessons learned in evaluating such problematic data sets provide the basis for refining weight of evidence evaluation procedures for hazard notations.
Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Cell-biology; Dermatosis; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-methods; Irritants; Occupational-exposure; Qualitative-analysis; Risk-factors; Skin; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Statistical-analysis; Toxic-effects; Workplace-studies; Work-environment; Dermal-exposure
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 48th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 15-19, 2009, Baltimore, Maryland