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Developmentally inappropriate play areas in rural day care: Is it safe to play outdoors?

Authors
Townley-KF; McKnight-RH
Source
Pediatrics 1994 Dec; 94(6):1050
NIOSHTIC No.
20035122
Abstract
Work-in-progress that identifies mismatches between children's developmental levels and the outdoor play areas of rural day-care settings was reported. Outdoor environmental hazards were posited to be more prevalent in rural areas due to less-stringent zoning, variations of lifestyle, undereducation, high unemployment, and suboptimal health and safety standards. These environmental hazards include electric fences, farm animals, agricultural chemicals, firearms, tools, manure pits, unfenced ponds, and machinery. Principles of child development and of epidemiology were used to construct an outdoor injury hazard matrix. The Haddon Matrix was used as the basis of our matrix. Our matrix illustrated how children in rural settings might experience injuries different from those occurring in urban settings. Examples include entrapment, poisoning, falls, electrocution, burns, animal injuries, asphyxiation, and dismemberment. We believe that many risks of farm-based day care are unrecognized by persons who set standards. It remains unclear whether existing child-care standards are adequate in protecting children who receive care on family farms. We presented a checklist for evaluating sentinel hazards in outdoor play areas in rural settings. Methods to quantify the magnitude of these hazards in rural day care are under way.
Keywords
Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Families; Farmers; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-factors; Environmental-hazards; Environmental-health; Environmental-protection; Safety-climate; Safety-education; Safety-measures; Safety-monitoring; Safety-practices; Safety-programs; Health-hazards; Health-protection; Health-standards; Child-care-workers; Children; Outdoors; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Injuries; Injury-prevention; Animals; Fall-protection; Fire-hazards; Fire-prevention; Fire-protection; Fire-safety; First-aid; Education
Contact
K. F. Townley, Department of Family Studies, College of Human Environmental Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
CODEN
PEDIAU
Publication Date
19941201
Document Type
Abstract
Funding Type
Agriculture; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
1995
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007547
Issue of Publication
6
ISSN
0031-4005
Source Name
Pediatrics
State
KY
Performing Organization
University of Kentucky
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