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Nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors for biomonitoring chemical exposures.

Authors
Barry-RC; Lin-Y; Wang-J; Liu-G; Timchalk-CA
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2009 Jan; 19(1):1-18
NIOSHTIC No.
20034974
Abstract
The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical (EC) sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput, and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective EC sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50 microl) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This paper highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed.
Keywords
Electrochemical-analysis; Electrochemical-reactions; Electrochemistry; Biochemical-indicators; Biochemistry; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-monitoring; Biomarkers; Qualitative-analysis; Mathematical-models; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-agent-detectors; Chemical-analysis; Particulate-sampling-methods; Nanotechnology; Author Keywords: biomonitoring; dosimetry; electrochemical sensors; exposure assessment
Contact
Dr. Charles A. Timchalk, Biological Monitoring and Modeling Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN: P7-59, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352
CODEN
JEAEE9
Publication Date
20090101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
charles.timchalk@pnl.gov
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2009
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-008173
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1559-0631
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
State
WA
Performing Organization
Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories
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