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The promise of genomics and proteomics in immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology.

Pruett-SB; Holladay-SD; Prater-MR; Yucesoy-B; Luster-MI
Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology, 3rd edition. Luebke R, House R, Kimber I, eds., Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2006 Dec; :79-95
Genomics, including gene expression profiling (transcriptomics) and evaluation of SNPs, have been used in immunotoxicology studies to a limited extent. The primary value of high throughput microarray technology has been the identification of potential mechanisms of immunotoxicant action. Further implementation of genomic and proteomic methodology may serve to move immunotoxicology into the arena of systems biology. This approach could be beneficial with regard to mechanistic and screening applications and could also reveal new information about immune function. Similarly, data already available indicate that SNPs will be quite relevant in immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology. Findings that SNPs of immune-related proteins have an impact on the development of beryllium disease and silicosis suggest that SNPs may explain much of the daunting diversity of human responses to environmental and pharmaceutical agents. Proteomics involves the use of a wide array of methods, some of which can be conducted in a high throughput mode and are remarkably sensitive. Because proteins are the ultimate mediators of function in cells and organisms, proteomics will be a necessary component of any systematic effort to understand the mechanism of action of drugs or chemicals on the immune system. In conjunction with gene expression analysis, such studies can reveal whether the test article acts at the level of transcription or translation (or post-translationally). The development of "user friendly" mass produced methodologies, such as protein microarrays, is not as far along as in the case of genomics, but the potential uses of proteomics are similar to those mentioned already for transcription profiling.
Genes; Genetic-factors; Genotoxic-effects; Genotoxicity; Immune-reaction; Immunochemistry; Immunology; Immunotoxins; Immune-system; Pharmaceutical-industry; Pharmaceuticals; Pharmacodynamics; Environmental-factors; Biological-agents; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-systems; Protein-biochemistry; Protein-biosynthesis; Protein-synthesis; Proteins
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Book or book chapter
Luebke-R; House-R; Kimber-I
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Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology