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Quantitative monitoring of dermal and inhalation exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate monomer and oligomers.

Authors
Fent-KW; Jayaraj-K; Ball-LM; Nylander-French-LA
Source
J Environ Monit 2008 Apr; 10(4):500-507
NIOSHTIC No.
20034228
Abstract
Respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma are associated with exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in both monomeric and oligomeric forms. The monomer and polymers of diisocyanates differ significantly in their rates of absorption into tissue and their toxicity, and hence may differ in their contribution to sensitization. We have developed and evaluated a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method capable of quantifying HDI and its oligomers (uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate) in air, tape-stripped skin, and paint samples collected in the automotive refinishing industry. To generate analytical standards, urea derivatives of HDI, biuret, and isocyanurate were synthesized by reaction with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine and purified. The urea derivatives were shown to degrade on average by less than 2% per week at -20 degrees C over a 2 month period in occupational samples. The average recovery of HDI and its oligomers from tape was 100% and the limits of detection were 2 and 8 fmol microl(-1), respectively. Exposure assessments were performed on 13 automotive spray painters to evaluate the LC-MS method and the sampling methods under field conditions. Isocyanurate was the most abundant component measured in paint tasks, with median air and skin concentrations of 2.4 mg m(-3) and 4.6 microg mm(-3), respectively. Log-transformed concentrations of HDI (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) and of isocyanurate (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001) in the skin of workers were correlated with the log-transformed product of air concentration and painting time. The other polyisocyanates were detected on skin for less than 25% of the paint tasks. This LC-MS method provides a valuable tool to investigate inhalation and dermal exposures to specific polyisocyanates and to explore relative differences in the exposure pathways.
Keywords
Models; Spray-painting; Paint-spraying; Painting; Paints; Aerosols; Aerosol-particles; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Isocyanates; Mathematical-models; Air-flow; Occupational-exposure; Cyanates; Automotive-industry; Environmental-health-monitoring; Time-weighted-average-exposure; Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Work-areas; Work-environment; Work-intervals; Worker-health; Workplace-studies
Contact
Leena A. Nylander-French, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Rosenau Hall CB #7431, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7431
CODEN
JEMOFW
CAS No.
822-06-0; 108-19-0
Publication Date
20080401
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
leena_french@unc.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2008
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-007598
Issue of Publication
4
ISSN
1464-0325
Source Name
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
State
NC
Performing Organization
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
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