Blood esterase determinations as markers of exposure.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1992 Jan; 128:55-69
The bases of using blood enzyme activity measurements e.g. AChE, non-specific cholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase as markers of organophosphate ester (OP) exposure are inhibition of activity by the binding of OPs to serine active sites in the enzymes, and the accessibility of the enzymes in RBCs and serum. The methods used to determine esterases in the blood of humans, experimental animals, and wildlife are outlined with emphasis on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of the red blood cell. Adaptations of an acetylthiocholine ester assay of Ellman et al. (1961) are common, but other colorimetric procedures, radiometric assays, and pH methods are also in use. Optimized, standardized methods are needed to assess exposures and provide a solid basis for risk assessment analyses. Useful adjuncts to ChE measurements are oxime reactivation tests and assay of neuropathy target esterase, an enzyme associated with organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. Determination of urinary metabolites compliments, but does not substitute for, the information obtained from blood ChE studies. Future assays are likely to involve antibodies to OP-protein complexes. Improvements in techniques permit the detection of small decreases in ChE activities. Whether or not such small decreases in ChE activities can, by themselves, constitute an adverse effect for input into risk assessment analyses is a controversial matter.
Blood-analysis; Blood-samples; Blood-sampling; Chemical-analysis; Chemical-synthesis; Enzymatic-disorders; Enzymes; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Humans; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Urinalysis; Biomarkers
B.W. Wilson, Department of Avian Sciences, University of California, Davis 95616
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
University of California - Davis