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Blood esterase determinations as markers of exposure.

Authors
Wilson-BW; Henderson-JD
Source
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1992 Jan; 128:55-69
NIOSHTIC No.
20033619
Abstract
The bases of using blood enzyme activity measurements e.g. AChE, non-specific cholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase as markers of organophosphate ester (OP) exposure are inhibition of activity by the binding of OPs to serine active sites in the enzymes, and the accessibility of the enzymes in RBCs and serum. The methods used to determine esterases in the blood of humans, experimental animals, and wildlife are outlined with emphasis on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of the red blood cell. Adaptations of an acetylthiocholine ester assay of Ellman et al. (1961) are common, but other colorimetric procedures, radiometric assays, and pH methods are also in use. Optimized, standardized methods are needed to assess exposures and provide a solid basis for risk assessment analyses. Useful adjuncts to ChE measurements are oxime reactivation tests and assay of neuropathy target esterase, an enzyme associated with organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. Determination of urinary metabolites compliments, but does not substitute for, the information obtained from blood ChE studies. Future assays are likely to involve antibodies to OP-protein complexes. Improvements in techniques permit the detection of small decreases in ChE activities. Whether or not such small decreases in ChE activities can, by themselves, constitute an adverse effect for input into risk assessment analyses is a controversial matter.
Keywords
Blood-analysis; Blood-samples; Blood-sampling; Chemical-analysis; Chemical-synthesis; Enzymatic-disorders; Enzymes; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Humans; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Urinalysis; Biomarkers
Contact
B.W. Wilson, Department of Avian Sciences, University of California, Davis 95616
CODEN
RCTOE4
Publication Date
19920101
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Amount
1055222
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
1992
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U07-CCU-906162
ISSN
0179-5953
Source Name
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
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