Evaluation of irritancy and the sensitization potential of metal working fluids and metal working fluid components.
Anderson-S; Brown-K; Butterworth-L; Fedorowicz-A; Beezhold-D; Munson-AE; Meade-BJ
Toxicologist 2008 Mar; 102(1):270
Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are used to reduce the heat and friction associated with industrial machining and grinding operations. There are approximately 1.2 million workers potentially exposed to MWFs. Irritancy and sensitization potential of 9 National Toxicology Program nominated MWFs (TRIM 229, TRIM VX, TRIM SC210, CIMTECH 310, CIMPERIAL 1070, CIMSTAR 3800, SYNTILO 1023, SUPEREDGE 6768, and CLEAREDGE 6584) were examined in a combined local lymph node assay (LLNA). BALB/c mice were dermally exposed to each MWF at concentrations up to 50%. Significant irritation was observed after dermal exposure to all MWFs except CIMTECH 310 and SYNTILO 1023. Of the 9 MWF tested, TRIM VX yielded the highest sensitization potential with an EC3 value of 6.9%. Chemical components of TRIM VX identified using HPLC, were screened for sensitization potential using QSAR modeling and the LLNA. TOPKAT predicted Triethanolamine (TEA) and Triton-X as sensitizers while DEREK for Windows only predicted 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP). When tested in the LLNA only CMP (EC3= 28%) and OA (EC3=30%) were identified as sensitizers. All TRIM VX components tested resulted in a significant irritation response. In a further attempt to explain the low EC3 value for TRIM VX, combinations of the components were analyzed in the LLNA. Dermal application of mixtures of CMP, OA, TEA, and alpha-terpineol (TMP) resulted in an EC3 value for the mixture of 3.9%. Mixtures of CMP and OA resulted in an EC3 value of 5.9% while mixtures of CMP, TMP, and OA resulted in an EC3 value of 5.8%. These results suggest that the mixture may be responsible for the magnitude of sensitization potential of TRIM VX as compared to the sensitization potential of the individual components. This raises the question if testing individual components of a mixture or manufactured product will accurately predict the sensitization potential of final products.
Metallic-minerals; Metal-refining; Metal-industry; Metal-finishing; Metal-compounds; Dermatitis; Skin-absorption; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-cleaning; Chemical-processing; Sensitivity-testing; Sensitization; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking; Metalworking-industry
Healthcare and Social Assistance; Services
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 47th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 16-20, 2008, Seattle, Washington