Status of NIOSH research on prevention of robbery-related intentional injuries to convenience store workers.
Trends, Risks and Interventions in Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Third Annual Spring Symposium of the Homicide Research Working Group, Atlanta, Georgia. Block CR, Block R, eds., Washington DC: National Institute of Justice, 1995 Jan; :217-223
Castillo et al., (1994) reported that the average annual work-related homicide rate per 100,000 workers during the years 1980 through 1989 was 27 for the taxicab service industry, eight for liquor stores, six for gasoline stations, five for detective and security services, three for justice/public safety and three for grocery stores. Data from Schreiber (1991) indicated that approximately 100 homicides occurred in United States convenience stores (C-stores) d ring 1990. Based on Schreiber's data and assuming that approximately 500,000 C-store workers were employed in the U.S. during 1990, the 1990 homicide rate in the C-store industry is estimated to be 20 per 100,000 workers. Thus, the C-store industry' is among the highest risk industries for work-related homicide. Because homicide is the third leading cause of work-related death (Castillo & Jenkins, 1994), and because of the high number of homicides and the high homicide rate in convenience stores, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) initiated efforts to develop recommendations for the prevention of intentional injuries among C-store workers. The focus of crime prevention in convenience stores has been" to prevent intentional injury in a robbery situation by training in passive behavior, and has been to prevent robbery by environmental design (ED). Data from Erickson (1991) indicated that approximately two-thirds of convenience-store-related homicides occur in a robbery situation. Thus, robbery prevention would appear to prevent robbery-related injuries, although this has not yet been proven. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, conclusions from the published literature on the effectiveness of ED to deter robbery in convenience stores are briefly reviewed. Second, the status of NIOSH research projects in this area is summarized.
Retail-workers; Grocery-stores; Injury-prevention; Engineering-controls; Control-technology
Trends, Risks and Interventions in Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Third Annual Spring Symposium of the Homicide Research Working Group, Atlanta, Georgia