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Cholinesterase inhibition.

Authors
Wilson-BW
Source
Encyclopedia of toxicology. Wexler-P; Gad-SC, eds., San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998 1:326-340
Link
NIOSHTIC No.
20033398
Abstract
Cholinesterases (ChEs) are a ubiquitous groups of enzymes that hydrolyze esters of choline. A well known example is acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acetyl choline hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7), the enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the important neurotransmitter acetyl­choline (ACh). Another ChE is butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, acylcholine acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.8), also known as nonspecific cholinesterase. The preferred substrate for AChEs is ACh; BuChEs prefer to hydro­lyze esters like butyrylcholine and propionylcholine. Both AChE and BuChE are inhibited by some organo­phosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) esters, and also by other chemicals. Many ChE inhibitors act at the catalytic site of the enzyme, forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes that are slow to hydrolyze. The use of ChE inhibitors as insecti­cides and as chemical warfare agents, their toxicity to humans, and their impact on wildlife have made them important to toxicology researchers and, public health and environmental health officials.
Keywords
Chemical-analysis; Chemical-extraction; Chemical-reactions; Chemical-structure; Chemical-synthesis; Chemical-warfare-agents; Cholinesterase-inhibitors; Acetylcholinesterase; Enzymatic-effects; Enzyme-complexes; Enzyme-inhibitors; Enzymes; Neurotransmitters; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Toxic-effects; Toxins; Environmental-factors; Environmental-hazards; Environmental-health; Humans; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits
Publication Date
19980101
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Editors
Wexler-P; Gad-SC
Funding Amount
1055222
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
1998
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
9780122272202
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U07-CCU-906162
Source Name
Encyclopedia of toxicology
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
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