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Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area.

Authors
Bradman-AS; Schwartz-JM; Fenster-L; Barr-DB; Holland-NT; Eskenazi-B
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007 Jul; 17(4):388-399
NIOSHTIC No.
20033316
Abstract
Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - occurs on a limited basis. We measured para, para' (p,p')-DDE, p,p'-DDT, ortho, para' (o,p')-DDT, HCB, beta (beta)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and gamma-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94% to 100%. Median levels (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE (1,052), p,p'-DDT (13), beta-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than United States population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, beta-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred before moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country.
Keywords
Pregnancy; Children; Prenatal-exposure; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Sampling-methods; Biological-monitoring; Health-hazards; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-processes; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Smoking; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals
Contact
Center for Children's Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, 94720-7380
CODEN
JEAEE9
CAS No.
11097-69-1; 118-74-1; 50-29-3
Publication Date
20070701
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
abradman@socrates.berkeley.edu
Funding Amount
909365
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-007400
Issue of Publication
4
ISSN
1559-0631
Source Name
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California, Berkeley
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