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Molecular analysis of p53 and K-ras in lung carcinomas of coal miners.

Sarkar-FH; Li-Y; Vallyathan-V
Int J Mol Med 2001 Oct; 8(4):453-459
Thirty-three cases of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) from the archives of National Coal Workers' Autopsy Study were studied for mutational alterations in p53 and K-ras using PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and PCR-oligonucleotide probe hybridization techniques. Mutations of the p53 were observed in 4 smokers (19%) and one in a never smoker (8%). Two polymorphisms in smokers were detected at codon 213, a common site for sequence variation. Among the smokers the p53 mutations were in the heavy smokers. In never smokers there was only a single p53 mutation and two K-ras mutations. In never smokers the frequency of K-ras mutations was similar (17%) in smokers, but one never smoker had two K-ras mutations. Mutations of p53 were more frequent in adenocarcinomas (27%) and they were AT-->GC transitions. Four of 11 (36%) adenocarcinomas were found to have K-ras codon 12 mutations, and one adenocarcinoma had two K-ras mutations. There were two large cell undifferentiated carcinomas with p53 mutation and one with a K-ras mutation. Two of the 16 squamous cell carcinomas were positive for p53 mutation, while no K-ras mutations were found in this group. The results of these preliminary studies indicate a moderately different mutational spectrum of p53 and K-ras in coal miners independent of cigarette smoking. The mutational spectrum observed in this study of coal miners with heavy cigarette smoking history suggest a protective effect of coal mine dust in preventing abnormal mutations induced by chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke or reactive oxygen species. These limited preliminary studies provide insight into the possibility of accurately measuring changes in etiologic markers to unravel the uncertainties of cancer in coal miners.
Air-contamination; Air-samples; Airborne-dusts; Airborne-particles; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulate-dust; Particulate-sampling-methods; Particulates; Dust-analysis; Dust-exposure; Toxic-effects; Breathing; Breathing-atmospheres; Breathing-zone; Chemical-properties; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Exposure-assessment; Coal-miners; Coal-dust; Coal-workers; Carcinogenesis; Smoking; Work-environment; Worker-health; Chemical-analysis; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Cigarette-smoking
Dr. Fazlul H. Sarkar, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E. Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201
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International Journal of Molecular Medicine