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Pulsed and continuous patterns of diacetyl (2,3butanedione) inhalation cause rhinitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis in rats.

Authors
Hubbs-AF; Kreiss-K; Kanwal-R; Kullman-G; Frazer-D; Goldsmith-WT; Kashon-ML; Mercer-RR; Schwegler-Berry-D; Battelli-LA; Castranova-V
Source
Vet Pathol 2007 Sep; 44(5):781
NIOSHTIC No.
20033116
Abstract
Diacetyl is an alpha-diketone imparting the flavor of butter to food. During microwave popcorn and flavoring production, some workers inhaling diacetyl-containing vapor mixtures develop fixed airways obstruction. Workplace studies demonstrate large diacetyl air concen­tration fluctuations. To assess the airway toxicity of diacetyl and the use of time-weighted averages (TWAs) as the exposure metric, rats inhaled diacetyl at comparable TWAs over 6 hours, delivered either continuously or as four 15 minute pulses. The target concentrations for the four 15 minute pulses were 600, 1200, and 1800 ppm. The resulting 6 hour TWAs were 122 (low), 225 (medium), or 365 (high) ppm. Rats in the continuous groups inhaled diacetyl continuously over 6 hours, producing TWAs of 120 (low), 224 (medium) or 356 (high) ppm. An additional group, the single pulse group, inhaled one high (approximately 1800 ppm) diacetyl pulse (92.9 ppm 6 hour TW A). Diacetyl caused concentration-dependent epithelial necrosis and neutrophilic inflam­mation in the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchus. Significant bronchial epithelial damage was observed only in the high exposure groups. In the first nasal section, the continuous pattern of low exposure caused greater damage than the pulsed low exposure. In remaining sections and concentrations, the pathology score was unaffected by exposure pattern. The single high pulse diacetyl exposure also caused significant necrosis and/or inflammation in the first nasal section. These findings suggest that at concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, TWAs are a reasonable measure for diacetyl exposures. However, a single, pulse, high diacetyl exposure can cause respiratory epithelial injury.
Keywords
Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Food-processing; Food-processing-industry; Food-processing-workers; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Animals
CODEN
VTPHAK
Publication Date
20070901
Document Type
Abstract
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
5
ISSN
0300-9858
NIOSH Division
HELD; DRDS
Source Name
Veterinary Pathology
State
WV
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