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Toxicity of storm-water runoff after dormant spray application in a French prune orchard, Glenn County, California, USA: temporal patterns and the effect of ground covers.

Authors
Werner-I; Zalom-FG; Oliver-MN; Deanovic-LA; Kimball-TS; Henderson-JD; Wilson-BW; Krueger-W; Wallender-WW
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem 2004 Nov; 23(11):2719-2726
NIOSHTIC No.
20032809
Abstract
Organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, especially diazinon, have been detected routinely in surface waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds, coincident with rainfall events following their application to dormant orchards during the winter months. Preventive best management practices (BMP) aim at reducing off-site movement of pesticides into surface waters. Two proposed BMPs are: The use of more hydrophobic pyrethroid insecticides believed to adsorb strongly to organic matter and soil and the use of various types of ground cover vegetation to increase the soil's capacity for water infiltration. To measure the effectiveness of these BMPs, storm water runoff was collected in a California prune orchard (Glenn County, CA, USA) during several rainstorms in the winter of 2001, after the organophosphate diazinon and the pyrethroid esfenvalerate were applied to different orchard sections. We tested and compared acute toxicity of orchard runoff from diazinon- and esfenvalerate-sprayed sections to two species of fish (Pimephales promelas, Onchorhynchus mykiss) and three aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Simocephalus vetelus, Chironomus riparius), and determined the mitigating effect of three ground cover crops on toxicity and insecticide loading in diazinon-sprayed orchard rows. Runoff from the esfenvalerate-sprayed orchard section was less toxic to waterflea than runoff from the diazinon-sprayed section. However, runoff from the orchard section sprayed with esfenvalerate was highly toxic to fish larvae. Samples collected from both sections one month later were not toxic to fish, but remained highly toxic to invertebrates. The ground cover crops reduced total pesticide loading in runoff by approximately 50%. No differences were found between the types of vegetation used as ground covers.
Keywords
Chemical-analysis; Chemical-warfare-agents; Diazo-compounds; Insecticides; Agricultural-chemicals; Agricultural-industry; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Hydrophobic-bonds; Crop-spraying; Toxic-effects; Toxins; Sampling; Water-analysis; Water-sampling
Contact
I, Werner: Aquatic Toxicology Program, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
CODEN
ETOCDK
CAS No.
333-41-5
Publication Date
20041101
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Type
Agriculture; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2005
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007550
Issue of Publication
11
ISSN
0730-7268
Source Name
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
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