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Pesticide dose estimates for children of Iowa farmers and non-farmers.

Authors
Curwin-BD; Hein-MJ; Sanderson-WT; Striley-C; Heederik-D; Kromhout-H; Reynolds-SJ; Alavanja-MC
Source
Environ Res 2007 Nov; 105(3):307-315
NIOSHTIC No.
20032725
Abstract
Farm children have the potential to be exposed to pesticides. Biological monitoring is often employed to assess this exposure; however, the significance of the exposure is uncertain unless doses are estimated. In the spring and summer of 2001, 118 children (66 farm, 52 non-farm) of Iowa farm and non-farm households were recruited to participate in a study investigating potential take-home pesticide exposure. Each child provided an evening and morning urine sample at two visits spaced approximately 1 month apart, with the first sample collection taken within a few days after pesticide application. Estimated doses were calculated for atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate from urinary metabolite concentrations derived from the spot urine samples and compared to EPA reference doses. For all pesticides except glyphosate, the doses from farm children were higher than doses from the non-farm children. The difference was statistically significant for atrazine (p<0.0001) but only marginally significant for chlorpyrifos and metolachlor (p=0.07 and 0.1, respectively). Among farm children, geometric mean doses were higher for children on farms where a particular pesticide was applied compared to farms where that pesticide was not applied for all pesticides except glyphosate; results were significant for atrazine (p=0.030) and metolachlor (p=0.042), and marginally significant for chlorpyrifos (p=0.057). The highest estimated doses for atrazine, chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, and glyphosate were 0.085, 1.96, 3.16, and 0.34 g/kg/day, respectively. None of the doses exceeded any of the EPA reference values for atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate; however, all of the doses for chlorpyrifos exceeded the EPA chronic population adjusted reference value. Doses were similar for male and female children. A trend of decreasing dose with increasing age was observed for chlorpyrifos.
Keywords
Children; Farmers; Pest-control; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Pesticide-residues; Epidemiology; Biological-monitoring; Biological-systems; Biological-effects; Urine-chemistry; Humans
Contact
Brian D. Curwin, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS R-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
CODEN
ENVRAL
CAS No.
1912-24-9; 51218-45-2; 2921-88-2; 1071-83-6
Publication Date
20071101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
bcurwin@cdc.gov
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2008
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008491
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0013-9351
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS; DART
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; Manufacturing; Construction
Source Name
Environmental Research
State
OH; IA; CO; MD
Performing Organization
University of Iowa
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