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Identification of human urinary metabolites of acetochlor in exposed herbicide applicators by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Authors
Barr-DB; Hines-CJ; Olsson-AO; Deddens-JA; Bravo-R; Striley-CAF; Norrgran-J; Needham-LL
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007 Sep; 17(6):559-566
NIOSHTIC No.
20032696
Abstract
Acetochlor is a preemergent chloroacetanilide herbicide used to control annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds. It is the second most abundantly applied herbicide on corn crops in the United States; however, human metabolites associated with known exposure to acetochlor have not been positively identified and confirmed. We positively identified acetochlor mercapturate (ACM) as a metabolite of acetochlor in urine samples collected during a 24-h period from custom ( commercial) applicators who had applied acetochlor on either the day of or the day before urine collection. Concentrations in applicator urine samples ranged from 0.5 to 449 mu g/l (0.3-121 mu g/g creatinine). We found that ACM accounted for as much as 42% of the total acetochlor-derived metabolites; however, as the exposure level decreased ( based on total acetochlor metabolite level), ACM became a less abundant metabolite of acetochlor (< 17%). Unmetabolized acetochlor was also measured in the urine samples analyzed. At high exposures ( classified as 4100 mu g/l), acetochlor accounted for about 0.8% of the total excreted acetochlor metabolites( similar to 2% of the ACM concentrations). At lower exposures ( classified as ACM < 10 mu g/l), ACM and acetochlor concentrations were similar. Additionally, we tentatively identified another acetochlor metabolite that appeared to be important at low levels of exposure.
Keywords
Biological-factors; Biological-monitoring; Agricultural-industry; Agriculture; Herbicides; Urine-chemistry; Metabolites; Work-areas; Work-environment; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Pesticides; Biomarkers
Contact
Dr. Dana B. Barr, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, 4779 Buford Highway, Mailstop F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
CODEN
JEAEE9
Publication Date
20070901
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
dlb1@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
6
ISSN
1559-0631
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
State
GA; OH
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