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Comparative pathology of environmental lung disease: an overview.

Authors
Green-FHY; Vallyathan-V; Hahn-FF
Source
Toxicol Pathol 2007 Jan; 35(1):136-147
NIOSHTIC No.
20032594
Abstract
Environmental factors play a major role in a majority of lung diseases. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and many interstitial lung diseases are influenced or caused by environmental factors. Animals and humans may respond differently to the same agent, and a study of the comparative pathology between the two is useful for optimizing animal models of environmental lung disease and for evaluating their predictive value in carcinogenicity studies. This overview describes the most common nonneoplastic pathologic pulmonary responses to inhaled environmental agents in the human and contrasts them with the responses observed in rats exposed to the same agents. We show both similarities and difference in response to the same agents; furthermore, both species have unique responses to some agents (for example, progressive massive fibrosis in the human and proliferative squamous lesions in the rat). Quantitative analysis of the grades of response to three environmental particulate dusts revealed differences between the 2 species at the cellular level. Specifically, acute intra-alveolar inflammation, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and alveolar lipoproteinosis were all greater in rats than in humans exposed to the same agents. These differences may account for differences between the 2 species in carcinogenic response to nonfibrous particulates.
Keywords
Respiratory-system-disorders; Pneumoconiosis; Lung-disease; Pathology; Animals; Humans; Environmental-factors; Environmental-exposure; Carcinogenicity; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Particulate-dust; Cellular-reactions
Contact
Francis H. Y. Green, Professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
CODEN
TOPADD
Publication Date
20070101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
fgreen@ucalgary.ca
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
0192-6233
NIOSH Division
HELD
Priority Area
Manufacturing; Mining
Source Name
Toxicologic Pathology
State
NM; WV
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