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Exposures and health effects from inorganic agricultural dusts.

Authors
Schenker-M
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2000 Aug; 108(Suppl 4):661-664
NIOSHTIC No.
20032481
Abstract
Most studies of respiratory disease from dust exposure in the agricultural workplace have focused on allergic diseases caused by inorganic dusts, specifically occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Exposures to inorganic (mineral) dusts among farmers and farm workers may be substantial. Such exposures are most frequent in dry-climate farming regions. In such locations farming activities that perturb the soil (e.g., plowing, tilling) commonly result in exposures to farm operators of 1-5 mg/m3 respirable dust and >= 20 mg/m3 total dust. The composition of inorganic dust in agriculture generally reflects the soil composition. Crystalline silica may represent up to 20% of particles, and silicates represent up to 80%. These very high concentrations of inorganic dust are likely to explain some of the increase in chronic bronchitis reported in many studies of farmers. Pulmonary fibrosis (mixed dust pneumoconiosis) has been reported in agricultural workers, and dust samples from the lungs in these cases reflect the composition of agricultural soils, strongly suggesting an etiologic role for inorganic agricultural dusts. However, the prevalence and clinical severity of these cases are unknown, and many exposures are to mixed organic and inorganic dusts. Epidemiologic studies of farmers in diverse geographic settings also have observed an increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity and mortality. It is plausible that agricultural exposure to inorganic dusts is causally associated with chronic bronchitis, interstitial fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the independent contribution of mineral dusts beyond the effects of organic dusts remains to be determined.
Keywords
Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-processes; Agricultural-products; Agricultural-workers; Dust-analysis; Dust-exposure; Dust-inhalation; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Occupational-diseases; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-health; Occupational-respiratory-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-function; Lung-irritants; Lymphatic-system-disorders; Chronic-exposure; Chronic-inflammation; Bronchial-asthma; Farmers; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system-disorders
Contact
M. Schenker, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, One Shields Ave., TB168, Davis, CA 95616-8638 USA.
CODEN
EVHPAZ
Publication Date
20000801
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
mbschenker@ucdavis.edu
Funding Amount
1055222
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2000
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U07-CCU-906162
ISSN
0091-6765
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
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