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Child labor in Ghana cocoa production: focus upon agricultural tasks, ergonomic exposures, and associated injuries and illnesses.

Authors
Mull-LD; Kirkhorn-SR
Source
Public Health Rep 2005 Nov-Dec; 120(6):649-655
NIOSHTIC No.
20031992
Abstract
Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the occupational hazards experienced by children harvesting cocoa in western Ghana in order to design a vocational literacy life skills curriculum and radio social messaging campaign with a safety component to decrease hazardous work exposures in child agricultural work. Methods: An observational analysis was conducted of children aged 9 through 17 based upon personal interviews of agricultural workers, focus groups, and direct observation of work practices and activities. Job site analysis incorporated task mapping, job hazard review, and a review of equipment and use of protective gear. Results: Children and young people aged 9 through 17 are exposed to hazardous occupational exposures including strenuous work, sharp tools, and pesticides. Lack of training in proper safety practices and inadequate personal protective equipment were commonly noted. Injuries and illnesses included musculoskeletal disorders, sprains, strains, lacerations to the head, fractures, eye injuries, rashes, and coughing. Conclusion: Children working in cocoa harvesting are exposed to physical and chemical hazards without proper training or personal protective equipment. Unless safety interventions occur, there are potential long-term adverse health consequences.
Keywords
Hazards; Children; Agriculture; Work-practices; Job-analysis; Job-stress; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-accidents; Tools; Safety-measures; Safety-practices; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Training; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Protective-equipment; Protective-clothing; Personal-protective-equipment; Personal-protection; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-chemicals
Contact
International Initiative to End Child Labor, Arlington, VA 22204, USA
CODEN
PHRPA6
Publication Date
20051101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
Diane@endchildlabor.org
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-008107
Issue of Publication
6
ISSN
0033-3549
Source Name
Public Health Reports
State
VA; WI
Performing Organization
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
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