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Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans.

Authors
Doty-RL; Cometto-Muniz-JE; Jalowayski-AA; Dalton-P; Kendal-Reed-M; Hodgson-M
Source
Crit Rev Toxicol 2004 Mar; 34(2):85-142
NIOSHTIC No.
20031688
Abstract
Accurate assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritation is critical for identifying and remedying problems related to overexposure to volatile chemicals, as well as for establishing parameters of irritation useful for regulatory purposes. This article (a) describes the basic anatomy and physiology of the human upper respiratory tract and ocular mucosae, (b) discusses how airborne chemicals induce irritative sensations, and (c) reviews practical means employed for assessing such phenomena, including psychophysical (e.g., threshold and suprathreshold perceptual measures), physiological (e.g., cardiovascular responses), electrophysiological (e.g., event-related potentials), and imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging) techniques. Although traditionally animal models have been used as the first step in assessing such irritation, they are not addressed here since (a) there are numerous reviews available on this topic and (b) many rodents and rabbits are obligate nose breathers whose nasal passages differ considerably from those of humans, potentially limiting generalization of animal-based data to humans. A major goal of this compendium is to inform the reader of procedures for assessing irritation in humans and to provide information of value in the continued interpretation and development of empirical databases upon which future reasoned regulatory health decisions can be made.
Keywords
Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Chemical-properties; Physiological-disorders; Physiological-factors; Physiological-response; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Animal-studies; Eye-disorders; Nasal-disorders; Author Keywords: cilia; electrophysiology; glossopharyngeal nerve; irritation; magnetic resonance imaging; psychophysics; rhinomanometry; thresholds; trigeminal nerve; vagus nerve
Contact
Richard L. Doty, PhD, Director, Smell & Taste Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 5 Ravdin Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
CODEN
CRTXB2
Publication Date
20040301
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
doty@mail.med.upenn.edu
Fiscal Year
2004
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
1040-8444
NIOSH Division
OD
Source Name
Critical Reviews in Toxicology
State
MD; PA; FL
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