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Comparative in vitro toxicity of grape- and citrus-farm dusts.

Authors
Vallyathan-V; Pack-D; Leonard-S; Lawson-R; Schenker-M; Castranova-V
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2007 Jan; 70(2):95-106
NIOSHTIC No.
20031614
Abstract
Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of airborne dusts, including crystalline silica and other inorganic minerals. This study was designed to characterize the organic and inorganic components of agricultural dusts in California grape- and citrus-farm fields and to compare their cytotoxicity using in vitro toxicity bioassays as predictors of pathogenicity. Aerosolized dusts collected from farm fields were characterized by scanning-electron-microscopic energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, trace metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. As indicators of cytotoxicity, cell viability, release of alveolar enzymes activities (lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (OH), and lipid peroxidation were monitored after exposure of cells to grape- and citrus-farm dusts or inorganic components of these dusts. In addition, activation of nuclear factor B and activator protein-1 were evaluated at the peak time for response of 36 h postexposure. All toxicity studies were done in comparison with crystalline silica of similar particle size and diameter using the same mass concentrations as farm dusts. The results showed that inorganic minerals in the aerosolized farm dust fractions were mostly composed of aluminum silicates, crystalline silica, and free iron. Crystalline silica used in these studies was more cytotoxic than grape- and citrus-farm dusts. However, in general, citrus farm dust exhibited the greatest ability to generate ROS and induce lipid peroxidation. These results support human epidemiologic studies, reporting an increased incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in farm workers, by documenting the potential of farm dusts to induce oxidative stress and initiate disease development.
Keywords
Agricultural-products; Agricultural-workers; Agriculture; Dust-exposure; Dust-inhalation; Dusts; Inorganic-compounds; Organic-compounds; Bioassays; Toxicopathology; In-vitro-study; Foodstuff; Silica-dusts; Mineral-dusts; Airborne-dusts; Farmers; Analytical-processes; Cytotoxicity; Silicates
Contact
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Branch, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
CODEN
JTEHD6
CAS No.
14808-60-7
Publication Date
20070101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
vav1@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
1528-7394
NIOSH Division
HELD
Priority Area
Manufacturing
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
State
CA; WV
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