Reduction in urinary arsenic with bottled-water intervention.
Josyula-AB; McClellan-H; Hysong-TA; Kurzius-Spencer-M; Poplin-GS; Sturup-S; Burgess-JL
J Health Popul Nutr 2006 Sep; 24(3):298-304
The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean total arsenic (ug/L) in tap-water was 20.3 +/- 3.7 in Ajo and 4.0 +/- 2.3 in Tucson. Baseline urinary total inorganic arsenic (ug/L) was significantly higher among the Ajo subjects (n=40, 29.1 +/- 20.4) than among the Tucson subjects (n=32, 11.0 +/- 12.0, p<0.001), as was creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic (ug/g) (35.5 +/- 25.2 vs 13.2 +/- 9.3, p<0.001). Baseline concentrations of arsenic (ug/g) in toenails were also higher among the Ajo subjects (0.51 +/- 0.72) than among the Tucson subjects (0.17 +/- 0.21) (p<0.001). After the intervention, the mean urinary total inorganic arsenic in Ajo (n=36) dropped by 21%, from 29.4 +/- 21.1 to 23.2 +/- 23.2 (p=0.026). The creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic and toenail arsenic levels did not differ significantly with the intervention. Provision of arsenic-free bottled water resulted in a modest reduction in urinary total inorganic arsenic.
Urinalysis; Arsenites; Arsenates; Arsenic-compounds; Exposure-assessment; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Drinking-water;
Author Keywords: Arsenic; Drinking-water; Bottled water; United States
Dr. Jefferey L. Burgess, Associate Professor, Environmental and Community Health, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1435 N Fremont Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719, USA
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona