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Mechanistically identified suitable biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for silicosis and coal-worker's pneumoconiosis: A comprehensive review.

Authors
Gulumian-M; Borm-PJA; Vallyathan-V; Castranova-V; Donaldson-K; Nelson-G; Murray-J
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health, B 2006 Sep-Oct; 9(5):357-395
NIOSHTIC No.
20031037
Abstract
Clinical detection of silicosis is currently dependent on radiological and lung function abnormalities, both late manifestations of disease. Markers of prediction and early detection of pneumoconiosis are imperative for the implementation of timely intervention strategies. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the etiology of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) and silicosis was essential in proposing numerous biomarkers that have been evaluated to assess effects following exposure to crystalline silica and/or coal mine dust. Human validation studies have substantiated some of these proposed biomarkers and argued in favor of their use as biomarkers for crystalline silica- and CWP-induced pneumoconiosis. A number of "ideal" biological markers of effect were identified, namely, Clara cell protein-16 (CC16) (serum), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (monocyte release), interleukin-8 (IL-8) (monocyte release), reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by chemiluminescence (neutrophil release), 8-isoprostanes (serum), total antioxidant levels measured by total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione S-transferase activity, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (serum). TNF-alpha polymorphism (blood cellular DNA) was identified as a biomarker of susceptibility. Further studies are planned to test the validity and feasibility of these biomarkers to detect either high exposure to crystalline silica and early silicosis or susceptibility to silicosis in gold miners in South Africa.
Keywords
Biomarkers; Silicosis; Silicates; Silica-dusts; Coal-mining; Coal-miners; Coal-workers; Coal-workers-pneumoconiosis; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-diseases; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Lung-function; Lung-disorders; Pneumoconiosis; Coal-dust; Dusts; Dust-particles; Dust-exposure; Quartz-dust; Diseases; Disease-prevention; Exposure-levels; Gold-mines
CODEN
JTECFR
CAS No.
14808-60-7
Publication Date
20060901
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
mary.gulumian@nioh.nhls.ac.za
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
5
ISSN
1093-7404
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews
State
WV
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