As new high output technologies in genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics become more available, questions arise about their use in understanding and control of potential occupational carcinogens. To address these questions, we recently held a workshop where 80 specialists, in a single forum, discussed these technologies under categories of markers of early biologic effects, inherited modifiers of risk. applications, and case studies. The Utilization of these technologies was assessed with regard to the contribution they can make to carcinogen identification, epidemiologic research, risk assessment, and prevention. The ability to group chemical with similar global gene expression profiles has the potential to provide an early earning system for suspect carcinogenic chemicals before they are introduced into commerce. The challenge will be to identify the degree of similarity that is predictive of carcinogenicity and distinguish pathognomic patterns from homeostatic ones. In epidemiologic studies, high output patterns may serve as surrogate endpoints for cancer if they can be shown to have a high attributable proportion. Attention to basic epidemiologic principles of design and analysis are still important to guard against biases and irrepeatable results. To enhance risk assessments, expression patterns need to have demonstrated comparability across species for extrapolation purposes and be robust at different doses for dose-response predictions. In addition to scientific issues, ethical, legal, and social issues need to be addressed prior to use of these technologies in human populations. The ultimate challenge to the occupational safety and health community is how to exploit new technologies appropriately without disregarding potential benefits from relatively low-tech research approaches. This will require integration of historically tested technologies with newer ones.