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Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

Authors
Fedan-JS; Dowdy-JA; Fedan-KB; Hubbs-AF
Source
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006 Aug; 215(1):17-22
NIOSHTIC No.
20030836
Abstract
Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to hyperreactivity to mucosally applied MCh. The respiratory epithelium appears to serve as an initial target for the toxic effects of diacetyl in the airways.
Keywords
Lung; Lung-disorders; Workers; In-vitro-study; In-vitro-studies; Occupational-exposure; Methacholines; Lung-function; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Inhalants; Inhalation-studies; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Toxic-effects; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders
Contact
Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505-2888, USA
CODEN
TXAPA9
CAS No.
431-03-8
Publication Date
20060815
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
jsf2@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
0041-008X
NIOSH Division
HELD; DRDS
Source Name
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
State
WV
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