Immunological biomarkers of human health risk.
Toxicologist 1997 Mar; 36(1)(Part 2):50
Both biomarker research and human health risk assessment are relatively young and evolving scientific fields with substantial needs for and applicability to toxicology. Immunological biomarkers have broad potential as biological indicators due to the exploitation of the specificity and clonality of antibodies and immunocytes and due to automated and miniaturized methods. Immunological biomarkers can be used as potent biomolecular probes to identify and or quantitate both a variety of chemical antigens as well as to define biological exposure, effects, or susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Human and ecological risk assessments have proven successful when conducted with the four-step process set forth in the National Academy of Sciences paradigm: identification of hazards, assessments of toxicity and of exposure, and characterization of risks to health. Immunological biomarkers have powerful abilities to help provide early, direct and meaningful information on toxicologic hazards, subclinical exposures, preclinical effects, and on uncertainties of risk through biomonitoring; thus, they are well suited for certain applications in human health risk assessments. A conceptual approach to proper development, evaluation, and application of immunological biomarkers for assessing risks to human health will be described. Practical toxicological examples and precautions for use will be demonstrated with antibody and cellular biomarkers which pertain to components of human health risk assessment.
Biomarkers; Biological-monitoring; Biological-function; Immunological-tests; Immunology; Immunotoxins; Toxic-dose; Toxic-materials; Toxins; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 36th Annual Meeting, March 9-13, 2006, Cincinnati, Ohio