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Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

Authors
Daniell-WE; Swan-SS; McDaniel-MM; Camp-JE; Cohen-MA; Stebbins-JG
Source
Occup Environ Med 2006 May; 63(5):343-351
NIOSHTIC No.
20030193
Abstract
To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that under-use of protection was, in some substantial part, attributable to incomplete or inadequate company efforts.
Keywords
Noise; Noise-exposure; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Hearing-loss; Hearing-conservation; Hearing; Employees; Employee-health; Workers; Worker-health; Occupational-health; Occupational-exposure; Hearing-protection; Noise-control; Safety-measures; Safety-practices
Contact
Dr W E Daniell, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357234, Seattle, WA 98155, USA
CODEN
OEMEEM
Publication Date
20060501
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
bdaniell@u.washington.edu
Funding Amount
491140
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-003894
Issue of Publication
5
ISSN
1351-0711
Priority Area
Disease and Injury: Hearing Loss
Source Name
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
State
WA
Performing Organization
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
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