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Recognizing occupational and environmental disease and injury.

Levy-BS; Wegman-DH; Halperin-WE; Baron-SL; Sokas-RK
Occupational and environmental health: recognizing and preventing disease and injury, 5th edition. Levy BS, Wegman DH, Baron SL, Sokas RK, eds. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005 Nov; :131-147
To prevent occupational and environmental disease and injury effectively, health professionals must know how to anticipate and recognize conditions in those who present with symptoms and those who are presymptomatic. Health professionals can also recognize abnormal trends by examining grouped data. A systematic approach facilitates consideration of all aspects of prevention in reducing or eliminating occupational hazards. This chapter is organized to highlight the three levels of recognition that serve the three levels of prevention: 1. Primary prevention is designed to deter or avoid the occurrence of disease or injury. 2. Secondary prevention is designed to identify and adequately treat a disease or injury process as soon as possible, often before any symptoms have developed. 3. Tertiary prevention is designed to treat a disorder when it has advanced beyond its early stages to avoid complications and limit disability, or, if the condition is too advanced, to address rehabilitative and palliative needs. The correct diagnosis and approach to treatment of a person with an occupational or environmental illness or injury is essential to maximize opportunities for tertiary prevention. It can also promote primary and secondary prevention. A carefully designed surveillance program, using both case- and rate-based approaches, promotes primary prevention. The selection and use of screening and monitoring tests that are appropriate to identify risks promotes secondary prevention. When properly planned and integrated, these approaches contribute to (a) controlling risks at the source, (b) identifying new risks at the earliest possible time, (c) delivering the best level of therapeutic care and rehabilitation for those who are ill or injured, (d) preventing recurrence of disease and injury of affected people and occurrence of disease and injury in others who are exposed to similar risks, (e) ensuring that those affected receive economic compensation legally due them, and (f) discovering new relationships between occupational and environmental exposures and disease.
Occupational-hazards; Occupational-diseases; Injuries; Diseases; Health-hazards; Injury-prevention; Occupational-health; Occupational-health-programs; Occupational-safety-programs; Surveillance-programs
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Levy-BS; Wegman-DH; Baron-SL; Sokas-RK
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Occupational and environmental health: recognizing and preventing disease and injury, 5th edition