Lipid profile of firefighters over time: opportunities for prevention.
Soteriades-ES; Kales-SN; Liarokapis-D; Christoudias-SG; Tucker-SA; Christiani-DC
J Occup Environ Med 2002 Sep; 44(9):840-846
Heart disease is the primary cause of on-duty deaths in firefighters, but little is known about their lipid profile. We evaluated the lipid profile in relation to other cardiovascular disease risk factors in 321 firefighters at a baseline examination. Prospective comparisons were performed for 285 firefighters, who were enrolled in a statewide medical surveillance program, and had complete follow-up data for 4 years. The average cholesterol level in firefighters declined from 224 mg/dL at baseline (1996-1997) to 214 mg/dL at the follow-up examination (P < 0.0001). Conversely, both obesity (body mass index > or = 30; 34% versus 40%, P = 0.008) and triglycerides (> or = 200 mg/dL; 27% versus 35%, P = 0.047) increased over time. The proportion of firefighters taking lipid-lowering medications increased from 3% at baseline to 12% at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Cholesterol levels declined significantly, and treatment rates for elevated cholesterol increased over time. Despite repeated examinations, a considerable number of firefighters had persistently elevated cholesterol, and only a minority were receiving adequate treatment.
Case-studies; Mortality-data; Mortality-rates; Fire-fighting; Fire-fighters; Heart; Diseases; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-diseases; Demographic-characteristics; Sex-factors; Emergency-response; Mathematical-models; Models; Disease-prevention; Hypertension; Emergency-responders; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-disease; Surveillance-programs
Stefanos N. Kales, MD, MPH, Cambridge Hospital, Department of Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Health, 1493 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02139
Research Tools and Approaches: Health Services Research
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Harvard University, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, Massachusetts