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In vitro sulfoxidation of thioether compounds by human cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase isoforms with particular reference to the CYP2C subfamily.

Authors
Usmani-KA; Karoly-ED; Hodgson-E; Rose-RL
Source
Drug Metab Dispos 2004 Mar; 32(3):333-339
NIOSHTIC No.
20029419
Abstract
Cytochrome P450 (P450) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) enzymes are major catalysts involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The sulfoxidation of the thioether pesticides, phorate, disulfoton, sulprofos, and methiocarb, was investigated. Using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), thioether compounds displayed similar affinities; however, phorate and disulfoton displayed higher intrinsic clearance rates than either sulprofos or methiocarb. The sulfoxidation of thioethers by HLMs was found to be predominantly P450-driven (85-90%) compared with FMO (10-15%). Among 16 cDNA-expressed human P450 isoforms and 3 human FMO isoforms examined, the following isoforms and their polymorphisms had the highest rates for sulfoxidation, as follows: phorate, CYP1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; disulfoton, CYP1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C9*2, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; sulprofos, CYP1A1, 1A2, 3A4, 2C9*1, 2C9*2, 2C9*3, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; methiocarb, CYP1A1, 1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1. Among these isoforms, members of the CYP2C subfamily often had the highest affinities and clearance rates. Moreover, sulfaphenazole, a CYP2C9 competitive inhibitor, inhibited disulfoton sulfoxidation by CYP2C9 (IC50 0.84 microM) as well as in HLMs. Ticlopidine, a CYP2C19 mechanism-based inhibitor, inhibited disulfoton sulfoxidation by CYP2C19 (IC50 after coincubation, 43.5 microM; IC50 after preincubation, 4.3 microM) and also in HLMs. Our results indicate that current models of the substrate binding site of the CYP2C subfamily would not effectively predict thioether pesticide metabolism. Thus, the substrate specificity of CYP2Cs is more extensive than is currently believed, and some reevaluation of structure-activity relationships may be required.
Keywords
In-vitro-studies; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Humans; Liver; Models; Pesticides; Insecticides
Contact
Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695
CODEN
DMDSAI
Publication Date
20040301
Document Type
Journal Article
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2004
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007551
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0090-9556
Source Name
Drug Metabolism and Disposition
State
MD; NC
Performing Organization
East Carolina University
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