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Urinary and hand wipe pesticide levels among farmers and nonfarmers in Iowa.

Authors
Curwin-BD; Hein-MJ; Sanderson-WT; Barr-DB; Heederik-D; Reynolds-SJ; Ward-EM; Alavanja-MC
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2005 Nov; 15(6):500-508
NIOSHTIC No.
20028940
Abstract
In the spring and summer of 2001, as part of a larger study investigating farm family pesticide exposure and home contamination in Iowa, urine and hand wipe samples were collected from 24 male farmers and 23 male nonfarmer controls. On two occasions approximately 1 month apart, one hand wipe sample and an evening and morning urine sample were collected from each participant. The samples were analyzed for the parent compound or metabolites of six commonly used agricultural pesticides: alachlor, atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and chlorpyrifos. For atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and 2,4-D, farmers who reported applying the pesticide had significantly higher urinary metabolite levels than nonfarmers, farmers who did not apply the pesticide, and farmers who had the pesticide commercially applied (P-value <0.05). Generally, there were no differences in urinary pesticide metabolite levels between nonfarmers, farmers who did not apply the pesticide, and farmers who had the pesticide commercially applied. Among farmers who reported applying 2,4-D themselves, time since application, amount of pesticide applied, and the number of acres to which the pesticide was applied were marginally associated with 2,4-D urine levels. Among farmers who reported applying atrazine themselves, time since application and farm size were marginally associated with atrazine mercapturate urine levels. Farmers who reported using a closed cab to apply these pesticides had higher urinary pesticide metabolite levels, although the difference was not statistically significant. Farmers who reported using closed cabs tended to use more pesticides. The majority of the hand wipe samples were nondetectable. However, detection of atrazine in the hand wipes was significantly associated with urinary levels of atrazine above the median (P-value <0.01).
Keywords
Pesticides; Farmers; Agriculture; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-chemicals; Urinalysis; Metabolites; Pesticide-residues; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Exposure-assessment
Contact
Brian Curwin, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS R-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
CODEN
JEAEE9
CAS No.
1912-24-9; 15972-60-8; 2921-88-2
Publication Date
20051101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
bcurwin@cdc.gov
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T01-CCT-810435; Grant-Number-T42-OH-008491
Issue of Publication
6
ISSN
1053-4245
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS
Source Name
Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology
State
OH; CO; GA; IA
Performing Organization
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
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