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Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of paraquat in human-exposure samples.

Authors
Koivunen-ME; Gee-SJ; Park-EK; Lee-K; Schenker-MB; Hammock-BD
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2005 Feb; 48(2):184-190
NIOSHTIC No.
20028835
Abstract
Paraquat is a toxic quaternary ammonium compound used as an herbicide around the world. Easy, fast, and inexpensive but sensitive methods are needed to study the effects of long-term, low-level exposure of paraquat on human health. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantification of paraquat in urine and air-filter samples collected in a human-exposure study among farm workers in Costa Rica. A sample pretreatment consisted of removal of interfering substances using solid-phase extraction resin columns. The precision and accuracy of the method were tested using duplicate spiked urine samples. The correlation between results for blind samples obtained using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was significant (R2 = 0.945 and 0.906 for spiked and field samples, respectively). With an LOQ of 2 ng mL(-1), this ELISA method was able to distinguish the exposed from the nonexposed farm workers. For the air-filter analysis, paraquat was extracted by 9 M H2SO4 at 60 degrees C for 12 hours, and the results obtained by ELISA showed good correlation (R2 = 0.918) with the spectrophotometric (256 nm) measurements. Paraquat in acid-stabilized urine samples was very stable, and no significant losses were detected during a 3-month storage at room temperature, at 4 degrees C, or at -20 degrees C.
Keywords
Ammonium-compounds; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Herbicides; Occupational-health; Occupational-exposure; Exposure-levels; Farmers; Demographic-characteristics; Agriculture; Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-chemicals; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Air-filters; Air-samples; Air-sampling
CODEN
AECTCV
CAS No.
7664-41-7
Publication Date
20050201
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
bdhammock@ucdavis.edu
Funding Type
Agriculture; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2005
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007550
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
0090-4341
Source Name
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis
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