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Characterizing exposures to nonpersistent pesticides during pregnancy and early childhood in the National Children's Study: a review of monitoring and measurement methodologies.

Authors
Bradman-A; Whyatt-RM
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2005 Aug; 113(8):1092-1099
NIOSHTIC No.
20028716
Abstract
The National Children's Study is a proposed longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the relationships between children's health and the environment. Enrollment is estimated to begin in September 2005, and 100,000 children will be followed from preconception or early pregnancy until adulthood. Among multiple health outcomes, the study is proposing to investigate whether pre- and/or postnatal exposures to nonpersistent pesticides increase the risk of poor performance on neurobehavioral and cognitive exams during infancy and early childhood. Characterization of exposures will be challenging. Nonpersistent pesticides include many chemicals with biologic half-lives on the order of hours or days. Exposures can occur through multiple pathways (e.g., food and residential or agriculture pesticide use) and by multiple routes (inhalation, ingestion, dermal). Effects may depend on the developmental stage when exposure occurs. Sequential sampling is likely to be required and may involve a combination of environmental and biologic monitoring as well as collection of questionnaire data. In this article we review measurements that can be used to characterize exposures. These include biologic markers, personal and indoor air sampling techniques, collection of dust, surface and dermal wipe samples, and dietary assessment tools. Criteria for sample selection will necessitate evaluation of the time frame of exposure captured by the measurement in relationship to critical windows of susceptibility, the cost and validity of the measurements, participant burden, and variability in exposure routes across populations and at different age periods.
Keywords
Pesticides; Pregnancy; Children; Prenatal-exposure; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Sampling-methods; Questionnaires; Biological-monitoring; Air-sampling; Dusts; Dust-particles
Contact
R.M. Whyatt, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Ave., B-109, New York, NY 10032 USA
CODEN
EVHPAZ
Publication Date
20050801
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
rmw5@columbia.edu
Funding Amount
909365
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2005
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-007400
Issue of Publication
8
ISSN
0091-6765
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
CA
Performing Organization
University of California, Berkeley
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