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Exposure-related health effects of silver and silver compounds: a review.

Authors
Drake-PL; Hazelwood-KJ
Source
Ann Occup Hyg 2005 Oct; 49(7):575-585
NIOSHTIC No.
20028552
Abstract
A critical review of studies examining exposures to the various forms of silver was conducted to determine if some silver species are more toxic than others. The impetus behind conducting this review is that several occupational exposure limits and guidelines exist for silver, but the values for each depend on the form of silver as well as the individual agency making the recommendations. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has established separate threshold limit values for metallic silver (0.1 mg/m(3)) and soluble compounds of silver (0.01 mg/m(3)). On the other hand, the permissible exposure limit (PEL) recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the recommended exposure limit set by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is 0.01 mg/m(3) for all forms of silver. The adverse effects of chronic exposure to silver are a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin (argyria) or eyes (argyrosis). Most studies discuss cases of argyria and argyrosis that have resulted primarily from exposure to the soluble forms of silver. Besides argyria and argyrosis, exposure to soluble silver compounds may produce other toxic effects, including liver and kidney damage, irritation of the eyes, skin, respiratory, and intestinal tract, and changes in blood cells. Metallic silver appears to pose minimal risk to health. The current occupational exposure limits do not reflect the apparent difference in toxicities between soluble and metallic silver; thus, many researchers have recommended that separate PELs be established.
Keywords
Silver-compounds; Toxins; Toxic-effects; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-limits; Occupational-exposure; Liver-damage; Kidney-damage; Eye-irritants; Skin-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Eye-irritants; Eye-disorders; Health-hazards
Contact
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Research Laboratory, 315 E. Montgomery Avenue, Spokane, WA 99207, USA
CODEN
AOHYA3
CAS No.
7440-22-4
Publication Date
20051001
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
pdrake@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2006
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
7
ISSN
0003-4878
NIOSH Division
SRL
Source Name
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
State
WA
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