Reduction of chromium(VI) and its relationship to carcinogenesis.
Shi-X; Chiu-A; Chen-CT; Halliwell-B; Casranova-V; Vallyathan-V
J Toxicol Environ Health, B 1999 Jan/Mar; 2(1):87-104
Although Cr(VI)-containing compounds are well-documented carcinogens, their mechanism of action is still not well understood. Recent studies have suggested that reduction of Cr(VI) to its lower oxidation states and related free-radical reactions play an important role in carcinogenesis. This article summarizes recent studies on (1) the reduction of Cr(VI) by ascorbate, diol- and thiol-containing molecules, certain flavoenzymes, cell organelles, intact cells, and whole animals; (2) free-radical production with emphasis on hydroxy radical generation via Fenton or Haber-Weiss type reactions; and (3) freeradical-induced cellular damage, such as DNA strand breaks, hydroxylation of 2'deoxyguanosine, and activation of nuclear transcription factor B.
Chromium-compounds; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogens; Oxidation-reduction-reactions; Oxidation; Free-radicals; Free-radical-generation; Cell-biology; Cell-cultures; Cell-damage; Cellular-reactions; Environmental-contamination; Environmental-exposure; Environmental-hazards; Metal-compounds; Metal-dusts; Metal-poisoning; Heavy-metals; Heavy-metal-poisoning; Chrome-plating; In-vivo-study; Statistical-analysis
Xianglin Shi, PhD, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, HELD, NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
18540-29-9; 7440-47-3; 16065-83-1; 18540-29-9; 1333-82-0
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews