Biomarkers to assess potential developmental immunotoxicity in children.
Luster-MI; Johnson-VJ; Yucesoy-B; Simeonova-PP
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005 Aug; 206(2):229-236
Clinical tests are readily available for assessing severe loss of immune function in children with diseases such as AIDS or primary immunodeficiency. However tests that could reliably identify subtle immune changes, as might be expected to result from exposure to developmental immunotoxic agents, are not readily available. A number of tests are described which we believe have potential applicability for epidemiological studies involving developmental immunotoxicity. Several of the tests, such as T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) and cytokine measurements, while highly relevant from a biological standpoint, may be precluded from use at the current time, for either technical issues or insufficient validation. Immunophenotyping and measurement of serum immunoglobulin levels, on the other hand, are well validated. Yet they may require extraordinary care in experimental design and technical performance in order to obtain data that would consistently detect subtle changes, as these tests are not generally considered highly sensitive. Quantification of the immune response to childhood vaccine, while up to the present used sparingly, may represent an excellent indicator for developmental immunotoxicity when conducted under appropriate conditions.
Biomarkers; Immunotoxins; Children; Clinical-tests; Diseases; AIDS; AIDS-virus; Immune-system-disorders; Epidemiology
Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology