Transcriptional signatures of environmentally relevant exposures in normal human mammary epithelial cells: benzo(a)pyrene.
Keshava-C; Whipkey-D; Weston-A
Cancer Lett 2005 Apr; 221(2):201-211
Changes in gene expression in a panel of primary normal human mammary epithelial cell strains, developed from healthy breast tissue obtained at reduction mammoplasty from different donors, in response to benzo[a]pyrene exposure have been investigated. It was expected that both gene expression changes common to cell strains derived from different donors as well as inter-individual variation would be observed. Therefore, the strategy that has been adopted is to identify potentially important changes, or useful changes from a biomonitoring perspective, using gene-array technology and a small number of donors; then investigate selected transcription responses using a large number of tissue donors and a cheaper method of transcript detection (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Here we report results from four primary normal human mammary epithelial cell strains that were treated with benzo[a]pyrene in vitro for either 6 or 24h. Transcription was monitored using high-density oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetrix HuGeneFL). Total RNA was used for the preparation of labeled targets that were hybridized to microarrays containing probes representing more than 6800 human genes and expressed sequence tags. Gene expression data were analyzed using the GeneChip(R) software (MAS 5.0). Altered gene expression patterns were observed in response to benzo[a]pyrene in human mammary epithelial cell strains from different donors. Specifically, the dioxin inducible cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 was consistently induced in response to 6 and 24h exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in cell strains from all four donors. Two other genes that were relatively consistently induced were IL1beta and MMP1. Less consistent changes in other metabolism genes (CYP1A1, CYP11B2, and NQO1) and certain cell cycle control genes GOS2 and AF1Q were also induced, while EGR1 was suppressed. Although no change in p53 transcription was observed, an accumulation of p53 protein was detected using antibodies. A similar accumulation of Waf1 (p21) was also observed using immunohistochemistry, this was expected since p53 is p21's transcription factor. Significant inter-individual variations in both the levels and patterns of gene expression were observed, in response to benzo[a]pyrene exposure. These studies provide a complementary approach to molecular epidemiology for the investigation of differential susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, and specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Environmental-exposure; Exposure-levels; Genes; Cell-biology; Tissue-culture; In-vitro-studies; Polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Carcinogens; Carcinogenicity; Carcinogenesis
Molecular Epidemiology Team, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DHHS, 1095 Willowdale Road, M/S L-3014, Morgantown, WV 26505-2888, USA